I am Kashif Mirza, the founder of

ProjectIOT123. I am an Embedded Engineer and working on Embedded Projects since 2003. I have worked on Arduino, Raspberry Pi, PIc Microcontroller, 8051 etc. and have designed both prototypes & industrial projects.

Bode Plot is the commonly known analysis and design technique employed in the design of the Linear Time Invariant (LTI) system. Bode Plot compliance the complete information about the frequency response of the Linear Time Invariant System but do so in the graphical domain. That is the Bode plot consists of the Bode Magnitude Plot…

Bode Plot A Bode Plot is an important tool for designing and analyzing the circuits especially the feedback circuits. A Bode plot technique is based on designing and analyzing the electrical / electronic circuits in the frequency domain. This technique is named after the man who created it Hendrik W. Bode. The concept of Bode…

In this post I will discuss about the input bias current and input offset current of the practical Operational Amplifier. In the last post I have discussed about the DC offset voltage of the Operational Amplifier and there I have mentioned that the practical Operational Amplifier due to the limitation of the manufacturing technologies are…

In this post I will discuss about the DC imperfections of the Operational Amplifier. I have discussed in my previous posts that the practical Operational Amplifier does not exactly match the attributes of the Ideal Operational Amplifier due to which various problems arises in the operational of the practical circuit based on the Operational Amplifier.…

In this post I will discuss about the Operational Amplifier configuration as the Summing Amplifier. In the last post I have discussed the Operational Amplifier as the Programmable Gain Amplifier. I have mentioned there that the Operational Amplifier can employ to perform a variety of operations and the Operation that each op-amp configuration performs is…

In this post I will discuss the implementation of the Operational Amplifier as the active high pass filter. In the previous post I have discussed the Operational Amplifier as the Summing Amplifier and we learned there that the Operational Amplifier can be configured to perform a lot of operations and the operation that the operational…

In this post I will discuss the Programmable Gain Amplifier based on the Operational Amplifier. In the previous posts I have discussed about the applications of the Operational Amplifier, ideal attributes of the Operational Amplifier, advantages of using the Operational Amplifier and a number of commonly used configurations of the Operational Amplifier. As mentioned previously…

In this post I will discuss about the Operational Amplifier as the Differential Amplifier. In the previous posts I have discussed the applications of the Operational Amplifier, ideal attributes of the Operational Amplifier, some common circuits of Operational Amplifier. I have discussed about the differential amplifier earlier here I will consider it in detail. As…

In this post I will discuss some of the common applications of the Operational Amplifier(op amp). The Operational Amplifier can be configured to perform a variety of tasks and the tasks that the Operational Amplifier performs are determined by the feedback network of the Operational Amplifier configuration. I have discussed in my first post on…

In this post I will discuss about the Operational Amplifier as the Comparator. Among the vast applications of the Operational Amplifier; Operational Amplifier as the comparator is very important and also commonly used. In the previous post I have discussed the Inverting and Non-Inverting Operational Amplifier configurations in which the feedback network was designed to…